The integrity of our genetic material is under constant attack from numerous endogenous and exogenous agents. The consequences of a defective DNA damage response are well studied in proliferating cells, especially with regards to the development of cancer, yet its precise roles in the nervous system are relatively poorly understood. Here we attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the consequences of genomic instability in the nervous system. We highlight the neuropathology of congenital syndromes that result from mutations in DNA repair factors and underscore the importance of the DNA damage response in neural development. In addition, we describe the findings of recent studies, which reveal that a robust DNA damage response is also intimately connected to aging and the manifestation of age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.